The spectrum of kidney disease in patients with AIDS in the era of antiretroviral therapy

TitleThe spectrum of kidney disease in patients with AIDS in the era of antiretroviral therapy
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsWyatt, CM, Morgello, S, Katz-Malamed, R, Wei, C, Klotman, ME, Klotman, PE, D'Agati, VD
JournalKidney International
Date Published2009
KeywordsAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Adult, AIDS-Associated Nephropathy, Anti-HIV Agents, Cohort Studies, External, Female, Glomerulonephritis, Humans, Kidney Diseases, Male, Middle Aged, Nephrosclerosis, Prospective Studies, Tissue Donors

With prolonged survival and aging of the HIV-infected population in the era of antiretroviral therapy, biopsy series have found a broad spectrum of HIV-related and co-morbid kidney disease in these patients. Our study describes the variety of renal pathology found in a prospective cohort of antiretroviral-experienced patients (the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank) who had consented to postmortem organ donation. Nearly one-third of 89 kidney tissue donors had chronic kidney disease, and evidence of some renal pathology was found in 75. The most common diagnoses were arterionephrosclerosis, HIV-associated nephropathy and glomerulonephritis. Other diagnoses included pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, fungal infection and amyloidosis. Excluding 2 instances of acute tubular necrosis, slightly over one-third of the cases would have been predicted using current diagnostic criteria for chronic kidney disease. Based on semi-quantitative analysis of stored specimens, pre-mortem microalbuminuria testing could have identified an additional 12 cases. Future studies are needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of more sensitive methods for defining chronic kidney disease, in order to identify HIV-infected patients with early kidney disease who may benefit from antiretroviral therapy and other interventions known to delay disease progression and prevent complications.