Neuronal injury regulates fractalkine: relevance for HIV-1 associated dementia

TitleNeuronal injury regulates fractalkine: relevance for HIV-1 associated dementia
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsErichsen, D, Lopez, AL, Peng, H, Niemann, D, Williams, C, Bauer, M, Morgello, S, Cotter, RL, Ryan, LA, Ghorpade, A, Gendelman, HE, Zheng, JC
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Date Published05/2003
KeywordsCells, Chemokine CX3CL1, Chemokines, Cultured, CX3C, External, Glutamic Acid, Recombinant Proteins, Virion

Fractalkine (FKN), a chemokine highly expressed in the central nervous system, participates in inflammatory responses operative in many brain disorders including HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). In this report, HIV-1 progeny virions and pro-inflammatory products led to FKN production associated with neuronal injury and apoptosis. FKN was produced by neurons and astrocytes; but differentially produced by the two cell types. Laboratory tests paralleled those in infected people where cerebrospinal fluid FKN levels in HIV-1 infected cognitively impaired (n=16) patients were found to be increased when compared to infected patients without cognitive impairment (n=8, P=0.0345). These results demonstrate a possible role of FKN in HAD pathogenesis.