Eradication of HIV from Tissue Reservoirs: Challenges for the Cure.

TitleEradication of HIV from Tissue Reservoirs: Challenges for the Cure.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRose, R, Nolan, DJ, Maidji, E, Stoddart, CA, Singer, EJ, Lamers, SL, McGrath, MS
JournalAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
Date Published2018 01
KeywordsAnti-HIV Agents, Anti-Retroviral Agents, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Central Nervous System, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Lymph Nodes, Macrophages, RNA, Viral, Tissue Banks, Viral Load, Virus Latency

The persistence of HIV infection, even after lengthy and successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), has precluded an effective cure. The anatomical locations and biological mechanisms through which the viral population is maintained remain unknown. Much research has focused nearly exclusively on circulating resting T cells as the predominant source of persistent HIV, a strategy with limited success in developing an effective cure strategy. In this study, we review research supporting the importance of anatomical tissues and other immune cells for HIV maintenance and expansion, including the central nervous system, lymph nodes, and macrophages. We present accumulated research that clearly demonstrates the limitations of using blood-derived cells as a proxy for tissue reservoirs and sanctuaries throughout the body. We cite recent studies that have successfully used deep-sequencing strategies to uncover the complexity of HIV infection and the ability of the virus to evolve despite undetectable plasma viral loads. Finally, we suggest new strategies and highlight the importance of tissue banks for future research.

Alternate JournalAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
PubMed ID28691499
PubMed Central IDPMC5771544
Grant ListR01 MH100984 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
U24 MH100929 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
U24 MH100925 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States