Macrophages but not Astrocytes Harbor HIV DNA in the Brains of HIV-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

TitleMacrophages but not Astrocytes Harbor HIV DNA in the Brains of HIV-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsKo, A, Kang, G, Hattler, JB, Galadima, HI, Zhang, J, Li, Q, Kim, W-K
JournalJ Neuroimmune Pharmacol
Date Published09/2018
ISSN1557-1904
KeywordsExternal
Abstract

The question of whether the human brain is an anatomical site of persistent HIV-1 infection during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical, but remains unanswered. The presence of virus in the brains of HIV patients whose viral load is effectively suppressed would demonstrate not only the potential for CNS to act as an anatomical HIV reservoir, but also the urgent need to understand the factors contributing to persistent HIV behind the blood-brain barrier. Here, we investigated for the first time the presence of cells harboring HIV DNA and RNA in the brains from subjects with undetectable plasma viral load and sustained viral suppression, as identified by the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. Using new, highly sensitive in situ hybridization techniques, RNAscope and DNAscope, in combination with immunohistochemistry, we were able to detect HIV-1 in the brains of all virally suppressed cases and found that brain macrophages and microglia, but not astrocytes, were the cells harboring HIV DNA in the brain. This study demonstrated that HIV reservoirs persist in brain macrophages/microglia during suppressive ART, which cure/treatment strategies will need to focus on targeting.

DOI10.1007/s11481-018-9809-2
Alternate JournalJ Neuroimmune Pharmacol
PubMed ID30194646
Grant ListR01MH107333 / / National Institute of Mental Health /