Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K and TDP-43 Expression Bridges ALS and HIV Neuropathology

TitleHuman Endogenous Retrovirus-K and TDP-43 Expression Bridges ALS and HIV Neuropathology
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsDouville, RN, Nath, A
Volume8
Pagination1986
Date Published2017
ISBN Number1664-302X
Abstract

Despite the repetitive association of endogenous retroviruses in human disease, the mechanisms behind their pathological contributions remain to be resolved. Here we discuss how neuronal human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) expression in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is a distinct pathological aspect of HIV-associated neurological conditions, such as HIV encephalitis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Enhanced neuronal HERV-K levels were observed in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, and to a higher degree in brain tissue marked by HIV replication. Moreover, we highlight an important neuropathological overlap between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and HIV encephalitis, that being the formation of neurotoxic TDP-43 deposits in neurons. Herein, we argue for enhanced transdisciplinary research in the field of ERV biology, using an example of how HERV-K expression has novel mechanistic and therapeutic implications for HIV neuropathology.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01986
Short TitleFrontiers in Microbiology