Emerging patterns in HIV-1 gp120 variable domains in anatomical tissues in the absence of a plasma viral load.

TitleEmerging patterns in HIV-1 gp120 variable domains in anatomical tissues in the absence of a plasma viral load.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsLamers, S, Fogel, GB, Nolan, D, Barbier, AE, Rose, R, Singer, EJ, Gonzalez-Perez, M, McGrath, MS
JournalAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
Date Published02/2019
ISSN1931-8405
Abstract

The HIV envelope protein contains five hypervariable domains (V1-V5) that are fundamental for cell entry. We contrasted modifications in the variable domains derived from a panel of 24 tissues from 7 subjects with no measurable plasma viral load (NPVL) to variable domains from 76 tissues from 15 subjects who had a detectable plasma viral load (PVL) at death. NPVL subject's V1 and V2 domains were usually highly length variable, whereas length variation in PVL sequences was more conserved. Longer V1s contained more charged residues, whereas longer V2s were more glycosylated. Structural analysis demonstrated V1/V2 charge and N-site additions/subtractions were localized to the CD4 binding pocket. Diversified envelopes in tissues during therapy may represent a mechanism for HIV persistence in tissues, as binding pocket complexity is associated with HIV that may escape neutralization, whereas shorter envelopes are associated with increased infectivity. Further analysis of tissue-derived envelope sequences may enable better understanding of potential immunological approaches targeting the persistent HIV reservoir.

DOI10.1089/AID.2018.0267
Alternate JournalAIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PubMed ID30793919