Brain-specific HIV Nef identified in multiple patients with neurological disease.

TitleBrain-specific HIV Nef identified in multiple patients with neurological disease.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsLamers, SL, Fogel, GB, Liu, ES, Barbier, AE, Rodriguez, CW, Singer, EJ, Nolan, DJ, Rose, R, McGrath, MS
JournalJ Neurovirol
Date Published2018 02
KeywordsAIDS Dementia Complex, Amino Acid Sequence, Anti-HIV Agents, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Autopsy, Binding Sites, Brain, Gene Expression, HIV-1, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Lymphoid Tissue, Macrophages, Models, Molecular, nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Neural Networks, Computer, Organ Specificity, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical, Protein Conformation, beta-Strand, Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Signal Transduction

HIV-1 Nef is a flexible, multifunctional protein with several cellular targets that is required for pathogenicity of the virus. This protein maintains a high degree of genetic variation among intra- and inter-host isolates. HIV Nef is relevant to HIV-associated neurological diseases (HAND) in patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy because of the protein's role in promoting survival and migration of infected brain macrophages. In this study, we analyzed 2020 HIV Nef sequences derived from 22 different tissues and 31 subjects using a novel computational approach. This approach combines statistical regression and evolved neural networks (ENNs) to classify brain sequences based on the physical and chemical characteristics of functional Nef domains. Based on training, testing, and validation data, the method successfully classified brain Nef sequences at 84.5% and provided informative features for further examination. These included physicochemical features associated with the Src-homology-3 binding domain, the Nef loop (including the AP-2 Binding region), and a cytokine-binding domain. Non-brain sequences from patients with HIV-associated neurological disease were frequently classified as brain, suggesting that the approach could indicate neurological risk using blood-derived virus or for the development of biomarkers for use in assay systems aimed at drug efficacy studies for the treatment of HIV-associated neurological diseases.

Alternate JournalJ Neurovirol
PubMed ID29063512
PubMed Central IDPMC5792318
Grant ListR01 MH100984 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
U24 MH100929 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
UM1 CA181255 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States